Reference List on Glyphosate, by Dr. Huber (needs updating)

Some Selected References on Glyphosate

From: Don Huber, Prof. Emeritus of Purdue University.

1. AgroNews. 2011. India: Signs of food toxicity in GE eggplant. 2011-1-18.  [—3369.htm] Nib, 24 January 111.
2. Ananda, R. 2011. Scientists warn of link between dangerous new pathogen and Monsanto’s Roundup. Pp. 1-7.  Food Freedom.
3. Antoniou, M. Brack, P., Carrasco, A., Fagan, J., Habib, M., Kageyama, P., Leifert, C., Onofre, N., and Penegue, W. 2010. GM Soy: Sustainable? Responsible? Report, GLS Gemeinschaftsbank eG and ARGE Gentechnik-frei 2010.
4. Arregui, M.C., Lenardon, A., Sanchez, D., Maitre, M.I., Scotta, R., and Enrique, S.  2003. Monitoring glyphosate residues in transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybean.  Pest Manag. Sci. 60:163-166.
5. Aris, A. and Leblanc, S. 2011. Maternal and fetal exposure to pesticides associated to genetically modified foods in Eastern Townships of Quebec, Canada. Reprod. Tocicol. (2011). Doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2011.02.004.
5.a. Bailey, W.A., Poston, D.H., Wilson, H.P., and Hines, T.E. 2002. Glyphosate interactions with manganese. Weed Tech. 16:792-799.
6. Barker, B. 2010. Seed germination hurt with pre-harvest and desiccation applications. Glyphosate and Reglone residues were more prevalent in 2009. Top Crop Manager (West): February 2010:78-80.

7. Bellaloui, N., Reddy, K.N., Zablotowicz, R.M., Abbas, H.K., and Abel, C.A.  2009. Effects of glyphosate application on seed iron and root ferric (III) reductase in soybean cultivars. J. Agric. Food Chem. 57:9569-9574.
8. Benachour, N. Sipahutar, H., Moslemi, S., Gasnier, C., Travert, C., and Seralini, G.E. 2007. Time- and dose-dependent effects of roundup on human embryonic and placental cells. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 53:126-133.
9. Benbrook, C. 1999. Evidence of the Magnitude and Consequences of the Roundup Ready Soybean Yield Drag from University Based Varietal Trials in 1998. Ag BioTech InfoNet Technical Paper Number 1, July 13, 1999.
9.a. Bernards, M.L. Thelen, K.D., Muthukumaran, R.J. and McCracker, J.L. 2005. Glyphosate interaction with manganese in tank mixtures and its effect on glyphosate absorption and translocation.  Weed Sci. 53:787-794.
10. Bott, S., Tesfamariam, T., Candan, H., Cakmak, I., Roemheld, V., and Neumann, G.  2008. Glyphosate-induced impairment of plant growth and micronutrient status in glyphosate-resistant soybean (Glycine max L.). Plant Soil 312:185-194.
11. Bott, S., Tesfamariam, T., Kania,, A. Eman, B., Aslan, N., Roemheld, V., and Neumann, G.  2011. Phytotoxicity of glyphosate soil residues re-mobilised by phosphate fertilization.  Plant Soil 315:2-11. DOI 10, 1007/s11104-010-0689-3.
12. Boyette, C.D., Reddy, K.N., and Hoagland, R.E.  2006. Glyphosate and bioherbicide interaction for controlling kudzu (Pueraria lobata), and trumpet creeper (Campsis radicans). Biocontrol Sci. Tech. 16:1067-1077.
13. Bramhall, R.A. and Higgins, V.J. 1988. The effect of glyphosate on resistance of tomato to Fusarium crown and root rot disease and on the formation of host structural defensive barriers. Can. J. Bot. 66:1547-1555.
14. Cakmak, I., Yazici, A., Tutus, Y., and Ozturk, L. 2009.  Glyphosate reduced seed and leaf concentrations of calcium, magnesium, manganese, and iron in non-glyphosate resistant soybean.  European J. Agron. 31:114-119.
15. Camberato, J., Wise, K., and Johnson, B. 2010. Glyphosate-manganese interactions and impacts on crop production: the controversy. Purdue Extension Weed Sci. 4/8/2010.
16. Camberato, J., Casteel, S., Goldsbrough, P., Johnson, B., Wise, K., Woloshuk, C. 2011.  Glyphosate’s impact on crop production and disease development. February 24, 2011.
16.a. Chainark, P. (2008) Availability of genetically modified feed ingredient II: investigations of ingested foreign DNA in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fisheries Science, 74(2): 380-390(11).
17. Chang, C-C., Simcik, M.F., Capel, P. 2011. Occurerence and fate of the herbicide glyphosate and its degradate aminomethylphosphonic acid in the atmosphere. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 30:3:548-555.
18. Comeau, A., Pageau, D., Voldeng, H., and Brunelle, A. 2005.  Micronutrients: essential for early canopy establishment in bread wheat.  EECCO poster, Ottawa, Canada.
19. Coupland, D. and Caseley, J.C. 1979. Presence of 14 C activity in root exudates and guttation fluid from Agropyron repens treated with 14C-labeled glyphosate. New Phytol. 83:17-22.
20. Datnoff, L.E., Elmer, W.H., and Huber, D.M. (eds.). 2007. Mineral Nutrition and Plant Disease.  APS Press, St. Paul, MN, 278 pages.
21. Dick, R.P., and Lorenz, N. 2006. Interactions of soil microbial biomass, mineralogy and organic matter with potassium dynamics of corn in rotation with glyphosate tolerant soybeans. Proc. Glyphosate Potassium Symposium, Ohio State Univ.
22. Dodds, D.M., Hickman, M.V., and Huber, D.M. 2002. Comparison of micronutrient uptake by glyphosate resistant and non-resistant soybeans. Proc. North Central Weed Sci. Soc. 56:96.
23. Dodds, D.M., Hickman, M.V., and Huber, D.M. 2002, Micronutrient uptake by isogenic glyphosate tolerant and normal corn.  Proc. Weed Sci. Soc. Amer. 42:2.
24. Duke, S.O., Rimando, A.M., Pace, P.F., Reddy, K.N., and Smeda, R.J.  2003. Isoflavone, glyphosate, and aminomethylphosphonic acid levels in seeds of glyphosate-treated, glyphosate-resistant soybean, J. Agric. Food Chem. 51:340-344.
24.a. EFSA. 2007. Statement on the fate of recombinant DNA or proteins in the meat, milk or eggs of animals fed with GM feed.
25. Eker, S., Ozturk, L, Yazici, A., Erenoglu, B., Roemheld, V., and Cakmak, I. 2006.  Foliar-applied glyphosate substantially reduced uptake and transport of iron and manganese in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants.  J. Agric. Food Chem. 54:10019-10025.
26. Farenhorst, A., McQueen, D.A.R., Saiyed, I., Hilderbrand, C., Li, S., Lobb, D.A., Messing, P., Scumacher, T.E., Papiernik, S.K., Lindstrom, M.J. 2009. Variations in soil properties and herbicide sorption coefficients with depth in relation to PRZM (pesticide root zone model) calculations. Geoderma 150:267-277.
27. Feng, P.C.C., Baley, G.J., Clinton, W.P., Bunkers, G.J., Alibhai, M.F., Paulitz, T.C., and Kidwell, K.K. 2005. Glyphosate inhibits rust diseases in glyphosate-resistant wheat and soybean. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 102:17290-17295.
28. Feng, P.C.C., Clark, C., Andrade, G.C., Balbi, M.C., and Caldwell, P. 2007. The control of Asian rust by glyphosate in glyphosate-resistant soybeans. Pest Manag. Sci. 64:353-359.
29. Fernandez, M.R., Selles, F., Gehl, D., DePauw, R.M., and Zentner, R.P.  2005.  Crop production factors associated with Fusarium head blight in spring wheat in eastern Saskatchewan.  Crop Sci. 45:1908-1916.
30. Fernandez, M.R., Zentner, R.P., DePauw, R.M., Gehl, D., and Stevenson, F.C. 2007. Impacts of crop production factors on Fusarium head blight in barley in Eastern Saskatchewan. Crop Sci. 47:1585-1595.
31. Fernandez, M.R., Kremer, R.J., Zentner, R.P., Johnson, E.N., Kutcher, H.R., and McConkey, B.J. 2008. Effect of glyphosate on Fusarium root infection of pea crops grown in rotation with spring wheat in the semi-arid Canadian prairies. Agri-Food Canada.
32. Fernandez, M.R., Zentner, R.P., Basnyat, P., Gehl, D., Selles, F., and Huber, D.M.  2009.  Glyphosate associations with cereal diseases caused by Fusarium spp. in the Canadian Prairies.  European J. Agron.  31:133-143.
33. Gabrielle, M.L. and Barriuso, E. 2008. Measurement and modeling of glyphosate fate compared with that of herbicides replaced as a result of the introduction of glyphosate-resistant oilseed rape. Pest Manage. Sci. 64:262-275.
33.a. Gaines, T.A., Zhang, W., Wang, D., Bukun, B., Chisholm, S.T., shaner, D.L., Nissen, S.J., Patzoldt, W.L., Tranel, P.J., Culpepper, S., Grey, T.L., Webster, T.M., Vencili, W.K., Sammons, R.D., Jiang, J., Preston, C., Leach, J.E., and Westra, P. 2010.  Gene amplification confers glyphosate resistance in Amaranthus palmeri. PNAS 107:1029-1034.
34. Ganson, R.J. and Jensen, R.A. 1988.  The essential role of cobalt in the inhibition of the cytosolic isozyme of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase from Nicotiana silvestris by glyphosate.  Arch Biochem. Biophys. 260:85-93.
35. Gasnier, C., Dumont, C., Benachour, N., Clair,E., Chagnon, M-C., and Seralini, G-E. 2009. Glyphosate-based herbicides are toxic and endocrine disruptors in human cell lines. Toxicology 262:184-191.
36. Gasnier, C., Benachour, N., Clair, E., Travert, C., Langlois, F., Laurant, C., Decroixs-Laporte, C., and Seralini, G-E. 2010. Dig 1 protects against cell death provoked by glyposate-based herbicides in human liver cell lines. J. Occupat. Med. Toxicol. 5:29-30.
37. Gillam, C. 2010. Special report: are regulators dropping the ball on biocrops? Reuters
38. Gordon, W.B. 2006. Manganese nutrition of glyphosate-resistant and conventional soybeans. Better Crops 91:12-13.
39. Gordon, B. 2006. Manganese nutrition of glyphosate-resistant and conventional soybeans. Great Plains Soil Fertility Conf. Proc. Denver, CO, March 7-8, 2006:224-2/
40. Gordon, W.B. 2007. Does (the) glyphosate gene affect manganese uptake in soybeans?  Fluid J. Early Spring:12-13.

41. Hanson, L.E. 2010. Interaction of Rhizoctonia solani and Rhizopus stolonifer causing root rot of sugar beet. Plant Dis. 94:504-509.
42. Hartzler, B. 2010. Glyphosate-manganese interactions in Roundup Ready soybean. Iowa State Univ. Weed Sci.
43. Hernandez, A., Garcia-Plazaola, J.I., and Bacerril, J.M. 1999. Glyphosate effects on phenolic metabolism of nodulated soybean (Glycine max L. Merril). J. Agric. Food Chem. 47:2920-2925.
44. Hornby, D., Bateman, G.L., Gutteridge, R.J., Lucas, P., Osbourn, A.E., Ward, E., and Yarham, D.J. 1998. Take-all Disease of Cereals: A Regional Perspective. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
45. Huber, D.M. 2010. Ag chemical and crop nutrient interactions – current update. Proc. Fluid Fert. Forum, Scottsdale, AZ February 14-16, 2010. Vol. 27. Fluid Fertilizer Foundation, Manhattan, KS.
46. Huber, D.M. and McKay-Buis, T.S. 1993. A multicomponent analysis of the take-all disease of cereals. Plant Dis. 77:437-447.
47. Huber, D.M., Leuck, J.D., Smith, W.C., and Christmas, E.P. 2004. Induced manganese deficiency in GM soybeans.  North central Fert. Exten. Conf., November 2004, Des Moines, IA.
48. Huber, D.M., Cheng, M.W., Winsor, B.A. 2005. Association of severe Corynespora root rot of soybean with glyphosate-killed giant ragweed.  Phytopathology 95:545.
49. Huber, D.M. and Haneklaus, S. 2007. Managing nutrition to control plant disease. Landbauforschung Volkenrode 57:4:313-322.
50. Johal, G.R. and Rahe, J.E. 1984. Effect of soilborne plant-pathogenic fungi on the herbicidal action of glyphosate on bean seedlings.  Phytopathology 74:950-955.
51. Johal, G.S. and Rahe, J.E. 1988. Glyphosate, hypersensitivity and phytoalexin accumulation in the incompatible bean anthracnose host-parasite interaction. Physiol. Mol. Plant Patho. 32:267-281.
52. Johal, G.R. and Rahe, J.E. 1990. Role of phytoalexins in the suppression of resistance of Phaseolus vulgaris to Colletotrichum lindemuthianum by glyphosate. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 12:225-235.
53. Johal, G.R. and Huber, D.M. 2009. Glyphosate effects on diseases of plants. European J. Agron. 31:144-152.
54. Johnson, W.G., Davis, V.M., Kruger, G.R., and Weller, S.C.  2009.  Influence of glyphosate-resistant cropping systems on weed species shifts and glyphosate-resistant weed populations.  European J. Agron. 31:162-172.
55. Johnson, W.G., White, M., and Nice, G. 2010. Glyphosate and foliar fertilizers. Purdue Extension Weed Sci, 4/13/2010.
56. Jolley et al., 2004, Soil Sci. and Plant Nutrition 50:973-981.
57. Keen, N.T., Holliday, M.J., Yoshikawa, M. 1982. Effects of glyphosate on glyceollin production and the expression of resistance to Phytophthora megasperma f.sp. glycinea in soybean. Phytopathology 72:467-1470.
58. King, C.A., Purcell, L.C., and Vories, E.D.  2001.  Plant growth and nitrogenase activity of glyphosate-tolerant soybean in response to foliar glyphosate applications.  Agron. J. 93:79-186.
59. Knight, C.J., Bailey, A.M., and Foster, G.D. 2010. Investigating Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Verticillium albo-atrum on plant surfaces.  PloS ONE 5(10):e13684):1-5. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013684.
60. Kremer, R.J., Donald, P.A., Keaster, A.J., and Minor, H.C. 2000. Herbicide impact on Fusarium spp. and soybean cyst nematode in glyphosate-tolerant soybean. Agron. Abstr. P. 257.
61. Kremer, R.J., Means, N.E., and Kim, S.  2005. Glyphosate affects soybean root exudation and rhizosphere microorganisms.  Inter. J. Environ. Anal. Chem. 85:1165-1174.
62. Kremer, R.J. and Means, N.E.  2009.  Glyphosate and glyphosate-resistant crop interactions with rhizosphere microorganisms.  European J. Agron. 31:153-161.
63. Laitinen, P., Ramo, S., and Simes, K. 2005. Glyphosate translocation from plants to soil – does this constitute a significant proportion of residues in soil?  Plant Soil 300:51-60.
64. Lanen M., Lorenz, N., and Dick, R. 2009. The effects of glyphosate on soil microbial community structure and potassium dynamics.  Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. America 2009, Pittsburgh.
65. Larsen, R.L., Hill, A.L., Fenwick, A., Kniss, A.R., Hanson, L.E., and Miller, S.D. 2006. Influence of glyphosate on Rhizoctonia and Fusarium root rot in sugar beet.  Pest Manag. Sci. 62:1182-1192.
66. Laskawy, T. 2010. USDA downplays own scientist’s research on ill effects of Monsanto herbicide.
67. Levesque, C.A., Rahe, J.E., and Eaves, D.M. 1987. Effects of glyphosate on Fusarium spp.: its influence on root colonization of weeds, propagule density in the soil, and crop emergence. Canadian J. Microbiol. 33:354-360.
68. Levesque, C.A. and Rahe, J.E. 1992. Herbicide interactions with fungal root pathogens, with special reference to glyphosate.  Ann. Rev. Phytopathol. 30:579-602.
69. Levesque, C.A., Rahe, J.E., and Eaves, D.M. 1993. Fungal colonization of glyphosate treated seedlings using a new root plating technique. Mycol. Res. 97:299-306.
70. Liu, L., Punja, Z.K., and Rahe, J.E. 1995. Effect of Pythium spp. and glyphosate on phytoalexin production and exudation by bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) roots grown in different media. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 47:391-405.
71. Liu, L., Punja, Z.K. and Rahe, J.E. 1997. Altered root exudation and suppression of induced lignification as mechanisms of predisposition by glyphosate of bean roots (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to colonization by Pythium spp. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 51:111-127.
72. Lorenz, N., Wojno, M., and Dick, R.P. 2008. Are soil microbial community composition and soil microbial potassium in glyphosate treated no-till soils linked to corn potassium deficiency? Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. America, 2008, Houston.
73. Lorenz, N. Wojno, M., and Dick, R. 2009. Soil microbial community composition and microbial biomass potassium in no-till soils under K deficient glyphosate-tolerant corn and soybean.  Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. America 2009, Pittsburgh.
74. Lundager, Madsen et al. 1978. Stability constants of copper, zinc, manganese, calcium and magnesium complexes of glyphosate.  Acta Chemica Scandinavica A 32:79-83.
75. Martell, A.E. and Smith, R.M.  1974. Critical Stability Constants. Plenum Press, New York. Vol. 1, 5 (first supplement), 6 (second supplement).
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76. Means, N.E., Kremer, R.J., and Ramsier, C. 2007. Effects of glyphosate and foliar amendments on activity of microorganisms in the soybean rhizosphere. J. Environ. Sci. Health Part B 42:125-132.
77. Mekwatanakarn, P. and Sivasithamparam, K. 1987. Effect of certain herbicides on soil microbial populations and their influence on saprophytic growth in soil and pathogenicity of the take-all fungus. Biol. Fertil. Soils 5;175-180.
78. Mensink, H. et al., 1994. Glyphosate. Environmental Health Criteria 59. World Health, Geneva.
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80. Motavalli, P.P., Kremer, R.J., Fang, M., and Means, N.E. 2004. Impact of genetically modified crops and their management on soil microbially mediated plant nutrient transformations. J. Environ. Qual. 33:816-824.
81. Motekaitis and Martell, 1985. Metal chelate formation by N-phosphonomethyl glycine and related ligands. J. Coordination Chem. 14:139-149.
82. Neumann, G., Kohls, S., Landsberg, E., Stock-Olivera Souza, K., Yamada, T., and Roemheld, V. 2006.  Relevance of glyphosate transfer to non-target plants via the rhizosphere. J. Plant Dis. Prot. 20:963-969.
83. Nilsson, G. 1985.  Interactions between glyphosate and metals essential for plant growth. In: Grossbard E. and Atkinson, D. (eds.)  The Herbicide Glyphosate.  Butterworth, London. Pp 35-47.
84. Ostendorf, M. 2010. Are we shooting ourselves in the foot with a silver bullet? No-Till Farmer, March 2010:6-7.
85. Ozturk, L., Yazici, A., Eker, S., Gokmen, O., Roemheld, V., and Cakmak, I. 2008.  Glyphosate inhibition of ferric reductase activity in iron deficient sunflower roots.  New Phytol. 177:899-906.
86. Paganelli, A., Gnazzo, V., Acosta, H., Lopez, S.L., and Carrasco, A.E. 2010. Glyphosate-based herbicides produce teratogenic effects on vertebrates by impairing retinoic acid signaling. Chem. Res. Toxicol., August 9.
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88. Ptaszynski, B. and Zwolinska, A. 2001.  Synthesis and properties of solid complexes of lanthanum, cerium, neodymium and erbium with N-phosphonomethyl glycine. Polish J. Environ. Studies 10:4:257-262.

89. Purcell, L.C., King, C.A., and Ball, R.A.  2000. Soybean cultivar differences in ureides and the relationship to drought tolerant nitrogen fixation and manganese nutrition. Crop Sci. 40:1062-1070.
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96. Reddy, K.N., Rimando, A.M., and Duke, S.O. 2004.  Aminomethylphosphonic acid, a metabolite of glyphosate, causes injury in glyphosate-treated, glyphosate-resistant soybean. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52:5139-5143.
97. Reichenberger, L.  2007.  Missing micronutrients: Using glyphosate is complicating the uptake of some minor nutrients.  The Furrow Spring 2007:27-28.
98. Reimer, M., Farenhorst, A., and Gaultier, J. 2005. Effect of manure on glyphosate and trifluralin mineralization in soil. J. Environ. Sci. Health Part B, 40:605-617.
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108. Tesfamariam, T., Bott, S., Cakmak, I., Roemheld, V., and Neumann, G.  2009. Glyphosate in the rhizosphere – role of waiting times and different glyphosate binding forms in soils for phytoxicity to non-target plants.  European J. Agron. 31:126-132.
108.a. Tudisco, R., Mastellone, V., Cutrignelli1, M.I, Lombardi, P, Bovera1F., Mirabella, N., Piccolo1, G., Calabro1, S., Avallone, L., Infascelli, F. 2010. Fate of transgenic DNA and evaluation of metabolic effects in goats fed genetically modified soybean and in their offsprings.
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111. Wagner, R., Kogan, M., and Parada, M. 2003. Phytotoxic activity of root absorbed glyphosate in corn seedlings (Zea mays L.) Weed Biol. Manag.3:228-232.
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ZOBIOLE, L.H.S.; OLIVEIRA JR., R.S.; CONSTANTIN, J.  and  BIFFE, D.F. 2011. Prevention of RR soybean injuries caused by exogenous supply of aminoacids. Planta daninha [online]. 2011, vol.29, n.1, pp. 195-205. ISSN 0100-8358.

Glyphosate-resistant (RR) soybean crop areas have expanded every year. However, as a result of this expansion, the use of glyphosate has significantly increased, with the appearance of visual injuries in RR soybeans immediately after post-emergence application of the herbicide. Thus, two experiments were conducted in different years with different objectives. The first experiment aimed to evaluate the influence of glyphosate on photosynthetic variables and biomass production. The second experiment aimed to re-evaluate the same parameters affected in RR soybeans by glyphosate, as well as the use of various methods of amino acid application, as a form of a likely recovery of the soybean plants following these exogenous applications. The photosynthetic rate and SPAD index decreased as the glyphosate rate increased, with a pronounced decrease after a single herbicide application. Overall, due to a decrease in the photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll production, as well as to a likely immobilization of shoot nutrient concentration by glyphosate, a significant biomass decrease was verified in the treatments with glyphosate application. However, the use of exogenous amino acids may be a strategy to safeguard the undesirable effects of this herbicide on RR soybean.

Keywords : photosynthesis; herbicide; chlorosis; Rhizobium.


Planta Daninha
version ISSN 0100-8358
ZOBIOLE, L.H.S. et al. Use of exogenous amino acid to prevent glyphosate injury in glyphosate-resistant soybean. Planta daninha [online]. 2010, vol.28, n.3, pp. 643-653. ISSN 0100-8358.  doi: 10.1590/S0100-83582010000300022.

Cultivation of glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybeans has increased in Brazil as a result of the application of this technology in weed management systems developed for this crop. However, the expansion of GR soybean production has significantly increased the use of glyphosate and, in some cases, resulted in injury symptoms observed in GR soybean, known as “yellow flashing” or yellowing of the upper leaves. Thus, two experiments were conducted in different years. The first experiment aimed to evaluate the influence of glyphosate on GR soybeans regarding the photosynthetic variables, nodule parameters, and shoot and root dry biomass by comparing cultivar BRS  242  GR without glyphosate and BRS 242 RR + glyphosate at 1.200  g  ha-1 at V4 growth stage, to the near isogenic non-GR parental line cv. Embrapa 58. The second experiment aimed to reassess the same parameters in GR soybeans at the V4 stage treated with glyphosate, plus the application of various amino acids, to evaluate the expected recovery of soybean growth under the exogenous use of supplemental amino acids. In general, the photosynthetic variables, nodulation parameters and shoot and root dry biomass were affected by glyphosate; however, the use of amino acids may be a strategy to prevent the undesirable effects of this herbicide on GR soybean